Linguistic SWgTLDs - LSWgTLDs
An extension shall be assigned
to each language
( according to the three-letter code
ISO 639-2 )
so that sites or sites' versions written in specific languages
can be easily found and identified. It would facilitate greatly the task
of search engines and would foster linguistic diversity, which
is reaching its greatest wealth in
These set of extensions shann be managed by the
LSWgTLDs authority which is proposed to be the World Language Diversity Network (
recently formed within the framework of the international public law.
The main initiator of the REDILI has been of the Académie
Africaine des Langues which as been recognized recently,
not long after the
WSIS in Tunis, as an organ of
the African Union ( previously the
Organization of African Unity ).
First, a choice shall be made swiftly by the
LSWgTLD authority, at the start of
the implementation of the LSWgTLDs among the various technical ways, without
waiting hopelessly for an ICANN decision, to make use of multilingual URLs
and character sets and writing systems.
The choice of the LSWgTLD authority concerning multilingual URLs
shall be followed by all other SWgTLDs extension.
The LSWgTLD authority shall be the authority concerning all SWgTLDs
concerning multilingual URLs and writing systems that could be
implemented in a progressive fashion in other SWgTLDs, not necessarily
at their inception, in order to allow maximum flexibility and
The LSWgTLD proposal is not made for the sake of selling yet another
batch of domain names,
as ICANN is perceived to do by many detractors, but to empower technology advances.
that the world is entitled to benefit from.
In order that linguistic diversity be effectively preserved and enhanced, there is
a need that people can access on the Web,
important documents written not only in the language they
understand, but also in the language they cherish.
tools are giving sometimes surprisingly good
outputs, but most often they
are producing contents of a very
unequal quality, where good translations are sitting besides barely understandable babbling,
sometimes laughable, sometimes dangerous because it could means
the reverse of what it is intended,
to the point of being even insulting.
This is because automatic translation tools have difficulties
in catching semantics.
Automatic translation would be much improved if machine translation tools
could work with the help of several human certified translations in various languages.
For example, if the same document has been made available in English and in French
by the authors on the same site, and translated by human users in Russian and
Korean on other sites, it would be tremendous advantage for automatic
translation tools to have access and make use of all existing versions
in different language of the same document.
For example "Soci´té Civile" would not be translated
in yet other languages such as Italian as "Civil Company" with the help
the english version. Of course, it is required
that the translation tools could retrieve and identify the various versions
at different locations, therefore the need for the ODRI, as well as
standardized metadata or ontologies. It is hoped that if a document is available in
three or four different languages, the automatic translation making use of
the combination of those different langauges would be rather good.
Of course, scientific research to develop software translation tools
that could make use of a combination of existing translations of the
same document should be strongly encouraged.
Furthermore, it would seem judicious to foster the availability
of human-certified translations in as many languages as possible to
further enhance the efficiency of automatic translation tools
and to promote linguistic diversity.
Therefore, each time an automatic translation tool is providing
on request a translation, the translated text will be displayed
on a WIKI
so that a good speaker in the target language could
correct the mistakes that have been made in the automatic translation.
WIKIs ( eg WikiPedia )
have been in general quite successful with few defacements.
Various certification strategies of a human-corrected translation
could be studied and tested.
One could be that tentative human-corrected translations can be made
available to readers along with the automated translation, so that
readers could rate the various human-corrected translations.
When one human-corrected translation has been best rated for a certain
duration, then this translation could be retained as human-certified.
Therefore it is proposed a
set of measures to improve the efficiency of automatic translation tools.
and to hopefully achieve multilingualisms of the most important
ressources on the Web, at least within the LSWgTLs extensions.
In addition to the general measures
enforced for all SWgTLDs,
the following specific measures
shall be implemented and enforced within LSWgTLs :
- Metadata should indicate the topic fields ( eg Sciences, Arts, Medieval Litterature - Europe,
Science Fiction - Russia, etc.. ) with standardized XML or RDF schemas that
automatic translation tool could access, read and make use.
- Metadata and
and ODRI shall fill the need to identify that a specific document is an original
document or is the translation of an original document and in which language.
- A single set of free Automatic translation tools shall
be made available by the LSWgTLs authority to all registrants
that would take advantages of the existence of several human certified translation
of the same document.
- Automatic translation tools output shall be displayed on a general WIKI site,
managed by the LSWgTLs authority,
where users could contribute to correct and improve outputs.
These human-corrected translations shall be then validated as
human-certified translation, following a process determined by the LSWgTLs authority.
Interaction with other SWgTLds could be studied and implementated in order
to allow interoperability between all SWgTLDs extensions and
facilitate mutual cross-fertilization and empowerment.
For example ethicalcompany.equi.fran, ethicalcompany.equi.bamb
or ethicalcompany.fran.equi, ethicalcompany.bamb.equi
could point directly
to versions of the site of the "ethicalcompany" in various languages ( eg French, Bambara ),
those combinations of SWgTLDs extensions should have to satisfied both
set of conditions concerning the .equi SWgTLDs and the LSWgTLDs.
This demonstrates the need of a central SWgTLD authority to manage
and coordinate the governances of the various SWgTLDs.
WSIS Civil Society
WSIS Business Sector